This is the second time the Egyptian people choose a leader after the fall of authoritarian rule under Hosni Mubarak , on February 11, 2011 . Seen in a short period of less than five years , in Egypt there are two presidential elections . Why is that ? Who is the next leader of Egypt ?
Liberal vs. Islamism
As is well known , in February 2011 , in Egypt there has been regime change . Long ruler , Hosni Mubarak who ruled more than 30 years , has been deposed by his subjects . Since then , Egypt experienced a democratic transition . At first , the vulnerable period was escorted by the Supreme Military Council ( Supreme Council of the Armed Forces / SCAF ) .
For a while , the ruling SCAF determine whether the poor Egyptian political life . They make limited amendments to the Egyptian Constitution , March 30, 2011 to strengthen its position .
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For example , in article 53 stated that the incumbent ( incumbent ) members of SCAF in power and has great powers until a new constitution . Furthermore , the people of Egypt did the stages of democratization . They start by holding a People's Assembly elections ( parliament ) .
This election was held in three stages , from December 2011 until January 2012 ( six weeks ) , to select the 498 members of parliament . Ten other seats MPs appointed by the military authorities . Of the 498 members who are elected , two- thirds chosen from the list of candidates of political parties , and a third of independents.
The results of the Egyptian parliamentary elections are held freely , show the Freedom and Justice Party ( FJP ) which is affiliated to the Muslim Brotherhood movement ( IM ) won the vote with 235 seats ( 47.2 % ) . Then followed by the Salafi group Nour party gained 121 seats which ( 24.3 % ) .
The victory is quite surprising that the Egyptian elite as liberal and secular . Already dozens of years , the IM group suppressed in Egyptian political life . During Mubarak's rule , IM is a banned terrorist organization that should not be acting formally .
People increasingly liberal and secular shocked , when dalampemilupresiden , yangmenang is Mohammad Mursi of the IM group . In the second round , 16 to 17 June 2012, Mursi gained 51.7 % of the vote . With the acquisition , Mursi become Egypt 's first president after the fall of Hosni Mubarak . However , Mursi was only one year in power , because in July 2013 the Egyptian military took over power.
After the overthrow of Morsi , the Muslim Brotherhood group disbanded . Egyptian police and army arrested thousands of supporters of the organization , including its leaders . In Egypt the military operation , hundreds of supporters of the Muslim Brotherhood were killed . Egypt in turmoil again .
Hundreds of Muslim Brotherhood supporters were arrested and then sentenced to death . The reason the military to suppress the Brotherhood is in the stability of the Egyptian people . Then the military and its supporters reorganize political life of Egypt .
When the faucet is opened democracy , Egyptians initially start with the parliamentary elections , followed by presidential elections , and a referendum of the Constitution ( 2012) . But the result was the victory of the Muslim Brotherhood Islamist group . The group was considered to be only concerned with Islamic groups and ignore other groups that exist Egypt . Thus , the Brotherhood attacked the crowd rushed and passed down from power .
In the post- coup political arrangement to power Mursi , no change in strategy . Egyptian Constitution, which is the basis of life berakyat prioritized and discussed first . Thus , the Committee formed - 50 to change the Egyptian Constitution referendum , 2012.
The Constitution was considered controversial by liberals and the military . They consider adopting the Constitution of 2012 was only the interests of the Muslim Brotherhood . Committee changes brewing - 50 of the Egyptian Constitution which was then ratified in a referendum in January 2014 .
After the Constitution was considered wrong , Egyptians elect a president who could run the government . This moment , they chose a new leader . There are two candidates for president will be elected .
They are former military ruler , General Abdel Fattah al - Sisi and leftist figures , Hamdeen Sabahi . Both figures are mutually assist in the overthrow of President Mursi , one year ago . No presidential candidate from among the Islamists . Nour Party of the Salafis who are supposed to represent , supporting Al - Sisi .
It is a battle between those who regard the revolution is not finished and groups that are considered to retain power for long. Hamdeen Sabahi supported by the Liberal Freedom Party , Socialist People's Alliance Party , Constitution Party , Justice Party , People's Party and other leftist groups . They assume the overthrow of Hosni Mubarak revolution is not finished .
They will continue to fight for freedom for the people of Egypt . In contrast , Abdel Fattah al - Sisi supported by the Wafd Party , Tagammu Party , Free Egyptians Party , and the Nour Party . They thought it was the transition to democracy .
From the popularity of the two men , apparently Al - side will win the fight easily . The name Al - Sisi the talk in Egypt , after he and his group mengudeta Mursi power . She is getting popular after it said out of the military to prepare for a presidential candidate .
Results of a survey published by the newspaper Al Ahram ( May 3, 2014 ) , mentions the Al - side will win 72 % of the votes of the Egyptian people . While only 2 % of voters Sabahi sound . There is a 22 % yet to make his choice , 3 % refused to answer , and 1 % abstained . The same survey also explains 85 % of the Egyptian people will participate in the presidential election , 10 % will be non-voters , and 5 % have not decided yet . The survey was conducted on 28 April to 2 May 2014, at error3 % margin .
The supporters of Al - Sisi 's former defense minister believes will seamlessly become the next president of Egypt . Nour Party leader , Younis Makhyoun , for example , said in an interview that when Al - Sisi was not elected president , then Egypt could be a " collapse of the state . " ( Al- Ahram , 20 May 2014 ) .
She wants to show how Al - Sisi is expected to maintain the security of the Egyptian state . If it was really Al - Sisi became president of Egypt , the fate of the Muslim Brotherhood ? It appears that the group was founded by Hassan al - Banna in 1928, it can no longer take part in the life of Egypt .
Al - ban side will perpetuate the existence of the Brotherhood . Moreover, the 2014 Constitution referendum results mentioned ban political parties based on religion . It turns out that not only the suppression of the Brotherhood carried out by Al - Sisi . Candidates from the left , Sabahi , also will continue to ban the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt's political life .
In an interview with TV Al - Nahar ( May 6, 2014 ) , Sabahi said : " The Muslim Brotherhood will not exist as an organization Whose loyalty is to foreign entities, or as a political party . This is in accordance with the 2014 constitution bans parties based on the which religion . " ( Al- Ahram , 7 May 2014 ) .
Thus , Islamists in Egypt seems to be increasingly difficult in life kepolitikan there . Muslims , indeed the majority in Egypt , but the emergence of Islamism will be opposed by the liberals and the military .